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اللجنة الأفريقية لحقوق الإنسان والشعوب

السنغال: التقرير الدوري الاول ، 1982-1989

تغطية المدة:1982 - 1989

تاريخ التقديم: تشرين الأول 21 , 1992

نظرت الدورة:12th Ordinary Session


The African Commission recommends that the Government of Sudan:

NISS

1.Takes adequate measures in combating insecurity, violence, and police and law enforcement excesses, especially those of the NISS.

2.Ensures that the conditions of arrest, preliminary interrogation and detention of suspects comply with the principles of the Robben Island Guidelines.

Judiciary

3.Undertakes to train members of the judiciary at all levels, state prosecutors, and members of the bar, police and prison officials on human rights law.

4. Put in place the reforms to strengthen the judiciary especially as it relates to human rights training for judges.

Press Freedoms

5.Take the necessary measures that ensure freedom of expression and access to information.

Death Penalty and Torture and Cruel and Inhuman Treatment and Punishment

6.In its next report provide the number of persons on death row.

7.To observe the moratorium on the death penalty and take measures for its total abolition. 

8.Takes urgent and concrete measures to abolish laws that allow corporal punishment including stoning, amputation, cross-amputation and whipping.

9.Should include standards like the Robben Island Guidelines in the human rights program of Sudan Police College and the training of prison officers. 

10. Consider enacting a law criminalizing torture.

11. Appoints an independent commission to investigate all extrajudicial executions, enforced disappearances and torture by the police and make public its findings.

National Security Act

12. Repeal Article 52(3) of the National Security Act 2010 that provides members of the NISS and their associates with immunity from criminal and civil procedures. 

13. Takes immediate steps to close down all unofficial places of detention.

14. Adopts a holistic approach to prison decongestion and conditions of detention in the prisons, ensuring that the Prison Service get adequate resources, including funding to improve living conditions and access to health care in prisons and places of detention.

Women

15. Enacts legislation prohibiting female genital mutilations, violence and other discriminatory practices against women. 

16. Takes measures to ensure female participation at all levels of decision making, including considering enacting a law on affirmative action.

 

17. In its next Periodic Report provides gender disaggregated data with its narrative Report.

18. Ratify the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa. 

19. Ratifies the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW).

20. Takes legislative and other measures that address rape in Sudan. 

21. Takes measures that address the low level of literacy amongst the girl-child.

22. Enact a law that encourages and promote women’s participation in the political affairs of the State. 

23. Takes measures to ban child labour and recruitment of child soldiers.

24. Should indicate the participation of NGOs in the preparation of its next Periodic Report. 

25. Takes the necessary legislative measures and material preparations to extend free legal assistance to all crimes where the accused person cannot afford to pay legal representation fees.

26. Open up constructive dialogue, with the full involvement of the AU, with all factions of the various conflicts in Sudan, in particular South Sudan, in a bid to find a comprehensive solution to the problems in the country. 

27. Ensure that the deportation of refugees within its territory conforms to international and regional human rights standards. It should explore measures such as voluntary repatriation, integration or resettlement as durable solutions for long standing refugees’ problems.

Ratification of International / Regional Instruments

28. Takes measures to ratify international and regional human rights instruments, including:

     the Convention Against Torture;      the International Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights;      the Additional Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Establishment of an African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights;      the OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa,      and the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption; Charter on Democracy, Elections and Good Governance.

29. Should undertake to make a declaration accepting the competence of the African Court under Article 34(6) of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Establishment of the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights. 

30. Domesticates all the relevant regional and international instruments it has ratified in line with it international obligations.

Rights of Older Persons and the Disabled

31. In its next reporting period the report should outline how the rights of older persons and disabled people are protected.

General

32. Ensures that Sharia law is not applied to Christians and other non-Muslims groups.

33. Requests Sudan to respond to its request for Provisional Measures on Southern Kordofan.

34. In its next Periodic Report provide information on the measures taken by the authorities to deal with excesses of the police and other security agents.

35. Finally, the African Commission requests that the Republic of Sudan in its next Periodic Report inform the African Commission how it has implemented the recommendations in this Concluding Observations. 

Adopted at the 12th Extra-ordinary Session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights held from 29 July to 4 August 2012, Algiers, Algeria

 

1. The African Commission recommends that the Government of Angola should:

I.    Ensure that all the relevant stakeholders, including human rights NGOs, are involved in the preparation of periodic reports;

II. Ensure that future reports conform to the Guidelines on State Reporting under the African Charter and the Maputo Protocol;

III.   Take the necessary measures to ratify and domesticate the following regional and international legal instruments:

 The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Establishment of an African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court Protocol), and make the declaration under Article 34(6) of the Court Protocol to allow direct access for individuals and NGOs to the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights; The African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance; The African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (Kampala Convention); The African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption; The Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment and its Optional Protocol; The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol; The International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families; The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide; The Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; and The Optional Protocol to the International Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

IV.    Adopt the appropriate legislative measures, plans, policies and programmes to give effect to the provisions of the African Charter and the Maputo Protocol;

V.     Ensure dissemination of the African Charter and the Maputo Protocol to the public, including through translating the texts into the local languages;

VI.    Include current statistics and gender disaggregated data in the next periodic report;

VII.   Include, in the next periodic report, specific information on the provision of legal and judicial assistance services to underprivileged citizens;

VIII.  Establish an independent national human rights institution in accordance with the Paris Principles; 

IX.    Adopt specific legislation criminalizing torture in accordance with the provisions of the Guidelines and Measures on the Prohibition and Prevention of Torture, Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment (the Robben Island Guidelines);

X.     Ensure training on and dissemination of the Robben Island Guidelines to all judicial personnel and prison officers;

XI.    Provide in its next Periodic Report, comprehensive information on prisons and conditions of detention;

XII.   Take all necessary measures to reduce overcrowding in prisons, such as adopting alternative sentencing policies and imposing non-custodial sentences such as community service;

XIII.  Adopt all appropriate measures to ban forced evictions without prior consultation and ensure adequate compensation to people who are evicted from their homes; 

XIV. Take all necessary measures to ensure allocation of the required budget to the health sector;

XV.  Strengthen reproductive health programmes and policies in order to ensure increased access to family planning by women and adolescent girls;

XVI. Increase the number of health centres in order to reduce the high maternal and child mortality rate, with emphasis on providing free, adequate and available services to rural women and women from indigenous communities;

XVII.Strengthen existing education policies and programmes to ensure reduced gender disparity at all levels of education; 

XVIII.   Take all necessary measures to implement the Law against Domestic Violence enacted in 2011, including through adopting a national plan of action on violence against women and girls;   

XIX. Adopt a national plan of action for implementing UN Security Council Resolution 1325, in order to increase the participation of women in conflict prevention and management; 

XX.  Adopt affirmative action measures in order to increase the representation and participation of Angolan women in all decision-making institutions;

XXI.  Ensure that relevant programmes are put in place to protect and provide assistance to migrants and refugees living in the country; 

XXII. Expedite the process to finalize the study and review of the Law on the Status of Refugees by the Inter-sectoral Commission, in order to guarantee the rights of refugees in Angola; 

XXIII.Expedite measures taken in the area of programmes to remove anti-personnel mines and other explosive ordinances;   

XXIV.  Strengthen its public policy services, programmes and projects which ensure protection of the rights of people with disabilities; 

XXV. Continue to take all necessary measures to improve care for the elderly, including through development of a National Action Plan for the Protection of Older Persons, and concerted implementation of Decree No.14/06 on the Regulation of the Conditions of Installation and Operation of Elderly Care Homes;

XXVI.  Adopt legislative measures and establish relevant policies and programmes to address human trafficking, with emphasis on the protection of women and children;

XXVII.Adopt legislative measures to recognize the rights of indigenous communities in Angola, and strengthen the existing programmes and policies regarding them, with adequate financial resources provided; 

XXVIII.Take all necessary measures to guarantee the rights of persons working in extractive industries;

XXIX.  Guarantee free access to anti-retroviral drugs, ensuring access to vulnerable groups, specifically women, children and indigenous communities; 

XXX.   Strengthen programmes to raise awareness about HIV/AIDS, in particular programmes targeting youths;

XXXI.  Continue to take all necessary measures to guarantee that free and compulsory primary education is universal, including ensuring access to children from indigenous communities;

XXXII. Take the appropriate legislative measures to decriminalize press offences and guarantee freedom of expression and access to information; 

XXXIII. Adopt legislative measures to guarantee freedom of association and ensure the protection of human rights defenders;

XXXIV. Inform the African Commission, in its next Periodic Report, of measures taken to ensure implementation of the recommendations contained in the present Concluding Observations, and in the Promotion Mission report of April 2010.

deferred to the next Extra-Ordinary Session of the Commission

Thirty-Sixth Ordinary Session
23 November – 7 December 2004, in Dakar, Senegal

 

Consideration of Reports submitted by States Parties under the Terms of Article 62 
of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights

Concluding Observations and Recommendations on the Second Periodic Report of the Republic of Rwanda


I- Introduction

1. The Republic of Rwanda (Rwanda) is a State Party to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the African Charter) having ratified the same on 15 July 1983. Rwanda presented its initial Report in March 1991 in Banjul, The Gambia, at the 9th Ordinary Session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the African Commission) and in March 2000 presented its 1st Periodic Report during the 27th Ordinary Session, held in May 2000, in Algiers, Algeria.

2. The present Periodic Report was submitted to the Secretariat of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Secretariat) in May 2004, in conformity with Article 62 of the African Charter.

3. The present Concluding Observations are drawn from the presentation of the 2nd Periodic Report of Rwanda, which was considered during the 36th Ordinary Session of the African Commission, held from the 23 November to 7 December 2004 in Dakar, Senegal.

4. The Report was presented by a Delegation led by Her Excellency Mrs. Edda Mukabagwuiza, Minister of Justice of Rwanda.

5. The present Concluding Observations give an account of the positive aspects identified in the Report as well as the factors restricting the enjoyment of the rights guaranteed by the African Charter.

6. These Concluding Observations also outline the concerns drawn from the contents of the Report, and the recommendations formulated in this context by the African Commission.

7. The African Commission notes with satisfaction the frank and constructive dialogue it had with the Delegation during the presentation of the Report. The African Commission accordingly expresses its gratitude to Madam the Minister of Justice and to her Delegation for having provided detailed responses and information on the questions posed and on the requests for clarification from its Members.

II- Positive Aspects

The African Commission:

8. Congratulates Rwanda for having presented its 2nd Periodic Report in conformity with Article 62 of the African Charter. This Report, which covers the period up to 2002, is upto date and contains annexure that take into account the developments which took place from the date on which the Report was submitted.

9. Expresses its satisfaction to the Government of Rwanda for the efforts deployed to implement the rights and liberties enshrined in and guaranteed by the African Charter. In this context, the African Commission notes that Rwanda has:
 

Adopted in June 2003, a democratic Constitution and organised electoral consultations and held general elections which put an end to the transition period; Ratified several regional and international human rights instruments and is striving to implement them; put in place legal and regulatory measures as well as judicial and institutional mechanisms for the promotion and protection of human rights, notably a Ministry responsible for the Promotion of Human Rights and a National Human Rights Commission; Adopted, in collaboration with neighbouring States, specialised United Nations Agencies and Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs), measures allowing the return of refugees or displaced persons to their original places of residence; Enacted legislations and put in place mechanisms for better representation/participation of women in national decision making positions; Deployed significant efforts for dealing with the problem of genocide and support for its victims; Deployed efforts for the eradication of poverty and for the general improvement of the situation of Rwandan populations, in particular that of women and children; Taken significant measures for the strengthening of and the independence of the judiciary; and Adopted concrete measures, in association with civil society actors, for the return of peace and the security of individuals and their property.

III- Factors Restricting the Enjoyment of the Rights Guaranteed in the African Charter

10. Despite the laudable efforts currently being deployed by the Government Authorities, the limited resources in Rwanda preclude the adequate implementation of the rights and liberties stipulated in and guaranteed by the African Charter.

11. The low level of education and the persistence of illiteracy in Rwanda, despite the efforts being made by the Government, constitute a major handicap in the knowledge and enjoyment of their rights and responsibilities by the populations, in accordance with the relevant instruments ratified by Rwanda, in particular the African Charter.

12. The African Commission notes that the consequences of the genocide that took place in Rwanda in 1994 are still felt and constitute a factor that is likely to delay social healing and national reconciliation in Rwanda.

13. Furthermore, certain harmful traditional practices still persist, as well as social and sociological hang-ups contribute to the violation of human rights in Rwanda;

IV- Areas of Concern

While recognising the efforts of Rwanda to promote and protect human rights and to create awareness on the principles and provisions of the African Charter, the African Commission remains concerned that:

14. The large number of persons accused of having participated in the genocide and awaiting judgement by the gacaca courts is a matter of concern in terms of the respect for the right to a fair trial. Furthermore, the Report does not sufficiently deal with the existing relations between the gacaca courts and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) on the judicial treatment of the consequences of the 1994 genocide.

15. The existence of indigenous populations, notably the batwa populations and the eventual discrimination against these populations who are often marginalised and are victims of social exclusion is not adequately dealt with in the Report.

16. The rights of women and children are not adequately protected and legal and judicial assistance, notably for vulnerable groups and individuals, minorities or indigents, is not properly guaranteed.

17. Discrimination against women constitutes a major source of concern in the context of the Rwandan women’s emancipation. Also, Rwandan women still remain largely uneducated and most often are marginalised in terms of access to public services and to leadership roles in public affairs. The same is true in terms of access by women heads of household to land and to the exercise of independent income generating activities.

18. The persistence of harmful traditional practices against women in particular, remains a matter of concern in spite of significant efforts deployed in this regard by the Government Authorities in collaboration with Human Rights NGOs. Besides, the rate of school enrolment is still very low in Rwanda.

19. The existence of a large number of street children in Rwanda constitutes a factor of major concern, which has to be dealt with urgently, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the African Charter and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child.

20. The Report does not give accurate information on the measures being taken by the Government Authorities to implement the anti-corruption policy in Rwanda;

21. The situation of prisons and places of detention are quite worrying in view of the large number of detainees, notably those accused of having participated in the genocide who have spent years behind bars and who the traditional courts known as the gacaca have not been able to sentence rapidly.

22. The Report does not adequately detail the efforts made by the Government Authorities to put an end to impunity, notably with regard to activities contrary to human rights that implicate personalities who had held responsible positions during the transition period.

23. Individuals affected by HIV/AIDS do not receive adequate medical care.

24. The measures taken by the State to facilitate the return of refugees and displaced persons to their original places of residence appear to be insufficient, notably in view of the number of persons concerned in the re-insertion exercise.

V- Recommendations

The African Commission recommends that the Government of Rwanda should:

25. Pursue its efforts in the area of democratisation and the implementation of the rule of law, stability and peace in Rwanda and in the sub-region.

26. Pursue efforts to deal with the genocide hearings/trials in accordance with the standards which are compatible with the right to a fair trial.

27. Pursue efforts for the effective implementation of the African Charter by ensuring the integration of the gender perspective in all related programmes, structures and activities.

28. Set up and implement adequate measures to guarantee the specific protection of the rights of individuals infected by HIV/AIDS, particularly women and children, and the access to adequate medical care.

29. Implement and ensure the follow-up of measures in the protection of the identity and cultural rights of Rwandan indigenous populations, notably their rights to freedom of association and expression, in conformity with national legislation.

30. Ensure greater involvement of NGOs and other stakeholders in the implementation process of regional and international instruments to which Rwanda is signatory, in particular the African Charter.

31. Ensure, without prejudice to the current policy which favours women, that the latter play a more significant part in the management of public affairs.

32. Take measures to guarantee the effective protection of returning refugees and displaced persons, by according them equal rights in all areas including economic and social rights, without discrimination, thereby allowing their social re-insertion/reintegration which should lead to genuine national reconciliation.

33. Inform the African Commission, in its next Periodic Report, of the steps it has taken to address the areas of concern, as well as how it has implemented the recommendations in this Concluding Observations.

Adopted at the 36th Ordinary Session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights held from 23 November to 7 December 2004, Dakar, Senegal.

Thirty-Seventh Ordinary Session
27 April – 11 May 2005, Banjul, The Gambia

 

Consideration of Reports submitted by States Parties under the Terms of Article 62 
of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights

Concluding Observations and Recommendations on the Seventh and Eighth Periodic Report of the Arab Republic of Egypt


I- Introduction

1. The Arab Republic of Egypt (Egypt) is a State Party to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the African Charter) having ratified it on 20 March 1984, and the latter entered into force on 21 October 1986. Egypt expressed reservations with respect to Articles 8 and 18(3) of the African Charter, whose application it considers, should be carried out subject to the guidance of Islamic Law (Shari’a).

2. The present Concluding Observations follow from the presentation and consideration of the 2nd combined Periodic Report of Egypt. The report was submitted to the Secretariat of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Secretariat) on 30 December 2004, and was considered during the 37th Ordinary Session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the African Commission) held from 27 April to 11 May 2005, in Banjul, The Gambia. The Report combines Egypt’s 7th and 8th Periodic Reports.

3. The Report was presented by a Delegation led by H.E Counsellor Ms Sanaa Khalil, Deputy Minister of Justice for Human Rights Affairs.

4. These Concluding Observations give an account of the positive aspects identified in the Report as well as the factors which restrict the enjoyment of human and peoples’ rights as stipulated in the African Charter.

5. These Concluding Observations also outline the concerns drawn from the contents of the Report and information provided during the presentation of the Report, and the recommendations formulated in this context by the African Commission.

6. The African Commission notes with satisfaction the frank and constructive dialogue that it had with the Delegation during the presentation of the Report. The African Commission accordingly wishes to express its gratitude to H.E Counsellor Sanaa Khalil and her Delegation for the comprehensive information they provided in response to questions posed and requests for clarification by the Members of the Commission.

II- Positive Aspects

The African Commission:

7. Commends Egypt for presenting its Periodic Report in conformity with Article 62 of the African Charter and the African Commission’s Guidelines for the Preparation of Periodic Reports.

8. Appreciated the efforts of the Government of Egypt in implementing the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the African Charter. In this context, the African Commission notes that Egypt has:
 

Promulgated, inter alia, in 2001 laws eliminating punishment by flogging in its prisons and abolished in 2003 the penalty of life-imprisonment and temporary hard labour; Abolished State Security Courts; Ratified most of the International and Regional instruments on human rights; Deployed efforts in the dissemination of human rights instruments including the African Charter; Established the National Human Rights Council and a Committee for Human Rights within the Parliament; Made a progressive definition and protection through legislation for older persons and persons with disabilities; Initiated dialogue with the political opposition on various issues including amendments to the Constitution in order to strengthen democracy and the rule of law; Guaranteed the provision of health care, prevention and emergency services and made medicines available to the citizens at reduced prices; Facilitated an increase in access of the population to higher education; and Acknowledged that some human rights problems do exist in Egypt and expressed its readiness to address them.

III- Factors Restricting the Enjoyment of Rights Guaranteed by the African Charter

9. Political, economic and social obstacles centred on illiteracy, poverty and unemployment preclude the adequate implementation of the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the African Charter;

10. The incontrollable increase in population and the inability of the State to efficiently face the multiple requests of such a situation.

IV- Areas of Concern

While recognising the efforts of Egypt to promote and protect human rights and to create awareness on the principles and provisions of the African Charter, the African Commission remains concerned:

11. That the state of emergency, which has been ongoing for decades, now is most unlikely to favour the full enjoyment by the population of the rights and freedoms enshrined in the relevant human rights instruments, in particular, the African Charter.

12. With the lack of specific figures and statistics on issues of poverty eradication and alleviation and the extent to which efforts have been made in Egypt to ensure equitable distribution of resources;

13. With the lack of details on the status of child labour, early marriages and the means and efforts to seek solutions on these issues;

14. With the delay in the process of the ratification of regional human rights instruments including the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Establishment of an African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Protocol Establishing the African Court) and the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (the Women’s Protocol);

15. With the lack of details on the procedure of the appointment of members of the National Human Rights Council, its conformity to the Paris Principles and the resolution of the African Commission on Granting Affiliate Status to National Human Rights Institutions in Africa and unavailability of copy of the Council’s report;

16. With the lack of clarification and information on allegations by NGOs in Egypt of generalised practice of torture in prisons;

17. With the alleged arbitrary declarations of curfews that infringe on the freedom of movement and the situation of alleged detainees/prisoners of conscience especially the Muslim Brotherhood group in Egypt;

18. That the independence of the judiciary is not guaranteed;

19. That the right to freedom of religion and the right to freedom of expression is allegedly being infringed upon;

20. That there is poor level of participation of women in the public sector, especially in public service and political processes, the issue of divorced women and widows, as well as the rights of women to inheritance, institute divorce proceedings and equality.

21. That details of the protection of refugees rights are not included in the Report;

22. That information on the problems the Government is experiencing in upholding relevant regional human rights instruments, particularly the African Charter are unavailable; and

23. That the measures taken to fight against terror are not always consistent with the respect for human rights.

V- Recommendations

The African Commission urges the Government of Egypt to:

24. Intensify efforts for the effective implementation of the African Charter, and ensure that gender equity and equality is integrated in all programmes, structures and activities;

25. Withdraw reservations on the African Charter, particularly those on the equality of women and address the continued rise in Female Genital Mutilation;

26. Lift the State of Emergency;

27. Guarantee independent, free and fair presidential elections and the participation of more candidates in the upcoming elections;

28. Implement the Robben Island Guidelines and facilitate their wide distribution among the State security agents and citizenry;

29. Intensify efforts to interact more with members of civil society organisations, in particular those working in the field of human rights and encourage them to apply for observer status with the African Commission;

30. Ratify the Protocol Establishing the African Court and the Women’s Protocol;

31. Respect the right to freedom of movement and residence;

32. Address environmental pollution problems especially in the Urban areas;

33. Allow the African Commission to undertake missions to Egypt;

34. Ensure that measures taken to fight terror are taken in conformity with human rights standards set forth by relevant human rights instruments ratified by Egypt, including the African Charter;

35. Take appropriate steps to meet international requirements in the fight against torture and, in particular, implement the recommendations and concluding observations adopted by the United Nations Committee Against Torture on Egypt;

36. Take appropriate steps to implement the recommendations of the National Council for Human Rights; and

37. Inform the African Commission, in its next Periodic Report in 2007, of the steps it has taken to address the areas of concern, as well as how it has implemented the recommendations in this Concluding Observations.

Adopted at the 37th Ordinary Session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights held from 27 April to 11 May 2005, Banjul, The Gambia.

Thirty-Seventh Ordinary Session
27 April – 11 May 2005, in Banjul, The Gambia

Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under the Terms of 
Article 62 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights

Concluding Observations and Recommendations on the First Periodic
Report of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania
 

I - Introduction

1. The Islamic Republic of Mauritania (Mauritania) is a State Party to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the African Charter) having ratified it on 14 June 1986. 

2. The Report was submitted to the Secretariat of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights in March 2004 and was considered during the 37th Ordinary Session of the  African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the African Commission or the Commission), held from 27 April to 11 May 2005 in Banjul, The Gambia.

3. The present Concluding Observations follow from the presentation and consideration of the 1st Periodic Report of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania.

4. The Report was presented by a Delegation led by His Excellency Mr. Hamadi Ould Meimou, Commissioner for Human Rights, Poverty Alleviation and Insertion.

5. Mauritania presented its Initial Report combining all overdue reports since 1988, during the 31st Ordinary Session of the African Commission, which was held in May 2002 in Pretoria, 
South Africa.

6. These Concluding Observations give an account of the positive aspects identified in the Report as well as factors which restrict the enjoyment of human and peoples’ rights guaranteed in the African Charter.

7. These Concluding Observations also outline the areas of concern drawn from the contents of the Report and information provided during the presentation of the Report, and includes recommendations formulated in this context by the African Commission.

8. The African Commission notes with satisfaction the frank and constructive dialogue it had with the Delegation and hence expresses its gratitude to the Honourable Commissioner and to his Delegation for providing responses and information on the questions posed and on the requests for clarification from its Members.

II – Positive Aspects

The African Commission:
9. Congratulates Mauritania for having presented its 1st Periodic Report in conformity with Article 62 of the African Charter and the African Commission’s Guidelines for the Preparation of Periodic Reports;

10. Commends the Government of Mauritania for the efforts made to implement the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the African Charter. In this context, the African Commission notes that Mauritania has:
Ratified several regional and international human rights instruments and is striving to implement them; Established legal and regulatory mechanisms as well as judicial and institutional measures for the promotion and protection of human rights, notably a Commission on Human Rights, Poverty Alleviation and Insertion; Enacted legislation to put in place mechanisms for better representation/participation of women in national leadership roles/institutions; Deployed efforts toward the reduction of illiteracy and the eradication of poverty and the general improvement of the situation of Mauritania’s population, in particular that of women and children; Prepared a programme for the promotion and protection of human rights and adopted a National Plan of Action in that respect; and Taken significant measures for the strengthening of the independence of the judiciary. III - Factors Restricting the Enjoyment of the Rights Guaranteed in the African Charter

11. The limited resources preclude the adequate implementation of the rights and freedoms guaranteed in the African Charter; 

12. The low level of education and the high rate of illiteracy constitute a major handicap in creating awareness and enjoyment of rights and freedoms by the populations; and

13. Harmful traditional and persistent practices contribute to the violation of human rights, in particular those of women.

IV –Areas of Concern

While recognising the efforts of the Government of Mauritania to promote and protect human rights and to create awareness on the principles and provisions of the African Charter, the  frican Commission remains concerned that:
14. Mauritanian women still remain largely uneducated and most often are marginalised in terms of access to public services and to leadership roles in public affairs. The same is valid in terms of access by Mauritanian women heads of household to landed property and to the exercise of independent income generating activities;

15. The persistence of slavery negatively affects the rights of certain categories of the Mauritanian population;

16. Legal and judicial assistance for vulnerable groups, namely women, children, minorities or the needy, is not properly guaranteed;

17. The traditional practices detrimental to women in particular Female Genital Mutilations (FGM) is still persistent;

18. There are allegations of torture on detainees, notably those accused of having participated in the failed coup of June 2004; 

19. While the HIV/AIDS pandemic is recognised as a concern in Mauritania those affected by this illness are yet to be provided with appropriate legal protection or adequate medical care;

20. There is a big gap between government authorities/structures and civil society organisations, in particular those organisations working in the field of human rights;

21. Freedom of association, notably for those organisations working in the field of human rights, is inadequately guaranteed under domestic laws and the lack of implementation of the existing laws remains a cause of concern;

22. The seizure procedures of the Ombudsman makes access to such institution to the general population very cumbersome;

23. The Mauritanian Government has poorly responded to decisions of the African Commission on communications brought against it.

V – Recommandations

The African Commission recommends that the Government of Mauritania should:
24. Pursue its efforts in the area of democratisation and the implementation of the rule of law, stability and peace in Mauritania; 

25. Deploy more efforts to disseminate the African Charter and provide training to judges, lawyers and law enforcement officials;

26. Ensure greater involvement of all Non-Governmental Organisations and activists concerned in the implementation process of regional and international human rights instruments to which Mauritania is signatory, in particular the African Charter;

27. Intensify dialogue between the Government and civil society organisations, especially those working in the field of human rights;

28. Intensify, in collaboration with civil society organisations, especially those working in the field of human rights, the efforts for the respect of the rights of women and the fight against practices that affect them, in accordance with duly ratified instruments, in particular the African Charter;

29. Pursue efforts to completely and definitely eradicate slavery, notably by thouroughly investigating cases, by bringing to justice and punishing those responsible for such practices;

30. Deploy more efforts towards the fight against cooruption;

31. Set up and implement adequate measures to guarantee the specific protection of the rights of individuals infected by malaria or HIV/AIDS, particularly women and children, and ensure access to adequate medical care;

32. Ensure, without prejudice to the current policy which favours women that the latter play a more significant role in the management of public affairs and in economical and social development;

33. Take the necessary steps toward the establishment of a National Human Rights Institution that functions according to relevant provisions of the Paris Principles and the resolution of the African Commission governing such institutions;

34. Take appropriate measures to expedite the process of ratification of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Establishment of An African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child;

35. Give a swift and timely response to the decisions of the African Commission on communications brought against it;

36. Inform the African Commission, in its next Periodic Report, of the steps it has taken to address the areas of concern, as well as how it has implemented the recommendations in this Concluding Observations.

Forty-Fourth Ordinary Session
10 – 24 November 2008, Abuja, Nigeria

Consideration of Reports submitted by States Parties under Article 62 
of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights
Concluding Observations and Recommendations on the Third Periodic Report of the Federal Republic of Nigeria


I - Introduction

1. The Federal Republic of Nigeria (Nigeria) is a State Party to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the African Charter) having ratified it on 22 June 1983.

2. Nigeria submitted its First Report to the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the African Commission) in 1990 which was considered during its 13th Ordinary Session in April 1993 and its Second Report was submitted in 2004 and considered during the 40th Ordinary Session in November 2006.

3. The present Report which covers the period from 2005 to 2008, which is Nigeria’s Third Periodic Report, was submitted to the Secretariat of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Secretariat) on 3 October 2008 and was examined by the African Commission during its 44th Ordinary Session held from 10 to 24 November 2008.

4. The Report was presented to the African Commission by Mr Alhaji Abdullahi Yola, Solicitor General and Permanent Secretary of the Federal Ministry of Justice, and Head of the Delegation of Nigeria. The Report highlights the developments that have occurred in the implementation of the country’s obligations under the African Charter since its last Periodic Report.

5. The present Concluding Observations highlight the positive aspects identified in the Report, outlines areas of concerns based on the content of the Report as well as the answers and information given during the presentation of the Report. Finally, it provides recommendations taking into account the dialogue that ensued from the examination of the Report.

II - Positive Aspects

The African Commission:

6. Welcomes the timely presentation of its Periodic Report by Nigeria in accordance with Article 62 of the African Charter and the fact that both the format and presentation of the Report, are in conformity with the African Commission Guidelines for the Preparation of Periodic Reports.

7. Appreciates the involvement of relevant stakeholders, including government agencies, human rights Non- Governmental Organisations (NGOs), legislators and the public at large in the preparation and writing of the present Report.

8. Appreciates the quality of the Report and the constructive dialogue it had with the Nigerian delegation, comprised of government officials directly involved in the implementation of the African Charter, which allowed for a fuller assessment of the State Party’s compliance with its obligations under the African Charter. The African Commission also welcomes the positive reactions to the suggestions and recommendations made during the discussion.

9. Welcomes the additional information and answers to the questions provided by the Delegation of Nigeria during the examination of the Report, and further welcomes the undertaking made by the Delegation to provide as soon as possible, answers to those questions and additional information which were not immediately available, as well as to include such information in its next periodic report to the African Commission.

10. Notes with appreciation, the fact that Nigeria is the only Common Law country in Africa, to have domesticated the African Charter in its entirety by the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights (Ratification and Enforcement) Act in 1983. (1)

11. Recognises that since the examination of Nigeria’s 2nd Periodic Report in 2006, at its 40th Ordinary Session, several measures have been taken to enhance the enjoyment of human rights in the country. This includes amongst others, the adoption of legislation, policy measures and judicial and institutional interventions such as: the reform of the administration of justice policies, prison decongestion and reform initiatives, the National Gender Policy and other legal reforms to prevent discrimination against women.

12. Also appreciate the development of rich human rights jurisprudence by the judiciary and in particular, the use of the provisions of the African Charter in settling human rights disputes in the country.

13. Welcomes the current efforts by the State Party to amend Chapter two of its Constitution to allow for the justiciability of social and economic rights, which are presently non-justiciable. It also welcomes the decision by its judiciary, giving effect to the intent and purpose of the provisions of Chapter two of the Constitution despite its present status as non-justiciable rights.

14. Also welcomes the establishment in September 2008, of the Ministry of the Niger Delta and other recent efforts to engage in dialogue with representatives of communities in this region to prevent armed activities, the development of a master plan for the holistic, progressive and accelerated development of the region as well as ongoing programmes tackling human development issues, with the overall aim of achieving gradual peace and meaningful cooperation in the Niger Delta region.

15. Further welcomes the efforts by the Government of Nigeria to amend the statute establishing the National Human Rights Institution- the Nigerian National Human Rights Commission (NNHRC) in conformity with international human rights standards. In this regard, the African Commission welcomes proposed measures to guarantee the independence of this body through measures such as direct funding from the Consolidated Revenue Fund, and the procedure for removal from office of Commissioners. In particular, the introduction of provisions ensuring the effectiveness of the NNHRC, by empowering it to summon individuals and public bodies before it, as well as creating a mechanism for the enforcement of its decisions are most welcome.

16. Recognises the creation of a Central Fund by the Attorney General of Nigeria, to address the inadequacies in the enforcement of monetary compensation awarded in favour of victims of human rights violations perpetrated by the Government or any of its agencies. The African Commission further recognises with appreciation, the substantial budgetary allocation to this fund by the Government, the composition of the committee established to administer the fund as well as the recent payment of compensation to victims of human rights abuses from this Central Fund.

17. Notes the inauguration of the National Committee on the Death penalty, to inter alia, make recommendations on the future of the death penalty in Nigeria. The African Commission further notes the recent pardon of two individuals on death row by the President of Nigeria and the information it has received that no death sentence has been carried out in the Country since 2006.

18. Welcomes the steps taken by Nigeria to improve the rights of children by enacting the Child’s Right Act of 2003 which amongst other things: establishes a minimum age for marriage, imposes an obligation on the Government of Nigeria to uphold the right of every child to free, compulsory and basic education, requires parents and guardians to ensure their child or ward attends and completes primary and junior secondary education and the right of every female child who becomes pregnant before completing her education to continue with her education after delivery. The African Commission further welcomes the provision of the Act prohibiting the imposition of the death penalty against children.

19. Notes the ratification and domestication of all core labour standards of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in the work place and the establishment of Labour Offices in each State of the Federation for the effective implementation of these standards. The African Commission further notes the development of the National Workplace Policy on HIV/AIDS that provides rights based guidelines to the Government, employers and employees for protecting the right and dignity of workers infected by HIV/AIDS.

20. Appreciates the due attention paid to the family as the basis of the Nigerian society, by amongst other things providing support to single parents as well as the codification of the Muslim family law.

III - Areas of Concern

While recognizing the efforts of Nigeria to promote and protect human rights and to create awareness on the principles and provisions of the African Charter, the African Commission remains concerned:

21. That the public at large is not sufficiently aware of the African Charter and the work of the African Commission.

22. About the poor level of female representation in all levels of government, particularly in the executive and in the legislature of the Federation and of States. While noting the increase in the number of female appointees to the judiciary, the African Commission remains concerned that not enough has been done to harness through affirmative action, the potential of Nigerian women willing and available to contribute to the social, economic and political development of the Country.

23. About the lack of concrete legislation at the national level on gender based violence, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), and discrimination against women despite ratification by Nigeria of both regional and international human rights treaties on the rights of women.

24. About the high incidence of infant and maternal mortality, especially in the Northern parts of the Country.

25. That despite decisions by regional and domestic institutions on the activities of trans-national corporations operating in the Niger Delta, there appears to be no change in their operations in terms of the respect for the right to food, shelter and the environment of the people in that region, therefore pointing to a lack of effective monitoring mechanism by the Government.

26. About the evictions and demolition of houses and buildings in various parts of the Country. The African Commission is particularly concerned about the failure of the Government to provide details of the measures it has taken to ensure that these evictions complied with international human rights standards and specifically that adequate compensation was paid to the victims of such eviction.

27. About the recent closure of an independent television station for a broadcast about the imminent resignation of the President of Nigeria, which according to the Delegation had the potential to undermine State security.

28. That the national electoral body- the Independent National Electoral Commission, with respect to issues such as its composition and the appointment and termination of office of its Commissioners, does not sufficiently guarantee its independence.

29. About the existing barriers to access to justice identified in the Report, such as; the high cost of litigation, inaccessibility of courts due to their location in mostly urban areas and exacerbated by the poor transportation system as well as the complex nature of the judicial process.

IV - Matters for Follow-Up from the Report

30. The African Commission welcomes the undertaking made by the delegation of the State Party to furnish it with additional information and updated statistics on issues the African Commission sought further clarification. These include:

a. A detailed inventory of NGOs and CSOs operating within Nigeria, the nature of their relationship and extent of the cooperation between these organisations and the Government.
b. The status of the various draft Bills currently before the National Assembly such as the National Human Rights Commission (Amendment) Bill, Prison Reform Bill, Elimination of Violence in Society Bill, the Anti-Discriminatory Laws and Practices in Nigeria Bill.
c. The status of the Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) legislation which according to the State Party has been adopted by various States of the Federation.
d. Statistical data on the level of women participation in all spheres of Government.
e. Statistical data on the prevalence of FGM in all States of the Federation.
f. Detailed information on prisons and conditions of detention in the country.
g. A copy of the decisions of the Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court in the General Sani Abacha v. Chief Gani Fawehimi case.

31. The African Commission also requires information on the extent to which the content of the Freedom of Information Bill currently before the Senate, complies with the relevant principles in the Declaration of Principles on Freedom of Expression in Africa.

32. The African Commission will also appreciate Information on Government actions to provide assistance for the resettlement of persons displaced by the bomb blast which occurred on 27 January 2002 in Lagos State.

33. As promised by the delegation, the African Commission expects to receive a detailed evaluation of the impact and effectiveness of the two national anti-corruption agencies: The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and the Independent and Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC).

34. Finally, the African Commission desires information on whether the current National HIV/AIDS Policy provides the necessary medical care to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS.


(1) CAP 10 Laws of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1990.

V - Recommendations

The African Commission recommends that the Government of Nigeria should:

35. Ensure that the provisions of the African Charter as well as the work of the African Commission is publicised in both rural and urban areas in the Country. In this regard, it encourages the State Party to take steps to translate and make available the African Charter in as many local languages as possible.

36. Make the declaration under Article 34 (6) of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Establishment of the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights, allowing individuals to have standing and bring cases before the African Court.

37. Take positive steps to create an effective affirmative action mechanism to guarantee female participation in all spheres of government, and also enact at the Federal level, legislation prohibiting FGM, violence and discriminatory practices against women.

38. Introduce appropriate policies to address the high incidence of infant and maternal mortality, especially in the Northern part of the Country.

39. Ensure that its electoral laws conform to the relevant principles in the Declaration of Principles of Freedom of Expression in Africa in its entirety and also ratify the African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance.

40. Establish an effective monitoring mechanism for the implementation of decisions of regional and domestic bodies on violations of the rights in the Niger Delta, especially those against trans-national corporations.

41. Take the necessary steps to amend its constitutional provisions sanctioning the death penalty and instead provide for its abolition.

42. Ensure the enactment into law of the various draft Bills before its National Assembly, including: the Legal Aid Council Act (Amendment) Bill 2007, Nigeria Police Act (Amendment) Bill, 2007, Prisons Reform Bill, the Elimination of Violence in Society Bill, and the Anti-Discriminatory Laws and Practices in Nigeria Bill.

43. Take steps to ease the difficulties of access to justice occasioned by the high cost of litigation and the complex court processes, by measures such as the provision of mobile courts, introduction of para-legal officers in the judicial system and the use of interpreters and local languages in Courts.

44. Inform the African Commission of the steps it has taken to address the areas of concern, as well as how it has implemented the recommendations in this Concluding Observations.

Adopted at the 44th Ordinary Session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights held from 10 to 24 November 2008, Abuja, Federal Republic of Nigeria.

Thirty-Eighth Ordinary Session 21 November – 5 December 2005, in Banjul, The Gambia   Consideration of Reports submitted by States Parties under the Terms of Article 62  of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights   Concluding Observations and Recommendations on the First Periodic Report of the Republic of South Africa   I- Introduction   1. The Republic of South Africa (South Africa) is a State Party to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the African Charter) having ratified it on 9 July J1996.   2. The present Concluding Observations follow from the presentation and examination of the First Periodic Report of the Republic of South Africa.   3. The Report was submitted to the Secretariat of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights on 14 May 2005 and was examined at the 38th Ordinary Session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the African Commission or the Commission) held in Banjul, The Gambia, from 21 November to 5 December 2005.   4. The Report was presented to the African Commission by Honourable Mrs. Bridget Mbandla, Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development of South Africa, and Head of Delegation of South Africa to the 38th Ordinary Session of the African Commission.   5. The present Concluding Observations give an account of the positive aspects identified in the Report. These Concluding Observations also include a list of issues for which the African Commission requests additional information and outlines areas of concerns drawn from the contents of the Report and information provided during the presentation of the Report. The Concluding Observations further provide recommendations formulated after the dialogue that ensued from the presentation of the Report.   II - Positive Aspects   The African Commission:   6. Appreciates the presence of a high-ranking Delegation directly involved in the implementation of the African Charter which allowed for a fuller assessment of the State Party’s compliance with its obligations under the African Charter;   7. Further appreciates the quality of the Report of South Africa;   8. Also appreciates the constructive, open and frank dialogue it had with the Delegation of South Africa and welcomes the positive reactions to the suggestions and recommendations made during the discussion;   9. Appreciates the additional information provided by the Delegation during the examination of the Report, and further appreciates the answers to its questions and the undertaking made by the Delegation to provide the African Commission, at a later stage, with answers to those questions for which additional information was not readily available;   10. Welcomes the ratification of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women;   11. Further welcomes the ratification of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Establishment of An African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights;   12. Also welcomes the establishment in 2003 of the Commission for the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Communities mentioned in the State’s Initial Report as one of the Institutions supporting Democracy in the country;   13. Appreciates the fact that most of the reformative draft legislations mentioned in the Report have now been passed as a law;   14. Notes that South Africa is one of the few African countries to develop a National Action Plan and Strategy for the promotion and protection of Human Rights in 1998 and a National Action Plan to Combat Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance following the World Conference on Racism in 2001. The African Commission also welcomes the setting up of a National Consultative Forum on Human Rights (NCFHR) responsible for coordinating all human rights issues in the country with the Ministry for Justice and Constitutional Development as a convener;   15. Also appreciates the fact that South Africa is one of the few African countries that provides for justiciable socio-economic rights in its constitution and in spite of its limited resources it has taken some steps to ensure the realization of these rights. The African Commission welcomes the decision to provide free Anti-Retroviral drugs to HIV positive pregnant women;   16. Notes with interest the fact that South Africa guarantees more rights than those guaranteed in the African Charter, including for example, the right to sports and leisure; and   17. Further welcomes the use of the African Charter by South Africa in its bilateral as well as multi-lateral relations, including on issues of negotiations.   III - Areas of Concern   While recognising the efforts of the Government of South Africa to promote and protect human rights and to create awareness on the principles and provisions of the African Charter, the African Commission remains concerned:   18. By the fact that the report was submitted almost four years after it was prepared making most of the information and statistics therein outdated during the time of examination by the African Commission;   19. With the lack of involvement of various state institutions involved in the promotion and protection of civil, political and socio-economic rights, and of civil society participation in the preparation of the Report. The Commission notes in this regard that reports required under Article 62 of the African Charter should be shared with all sectors of the society to give them an opportunity to contribute in its preparation or to react thereto;   20. That in some sections of the Report, the State Party simply provides a general description of the provisions of the African Charter and the legislation and/or policy put in place, without indicating how these measures have contributed in enhancing the rights of the persons under its jurisdiction;   21. With the lack of details on the measures taken by the State Party to eradicate the phenomenon of xenophobia directed towards African migrants in particular;   22. At the high incidence of sexual violence against women and children; and   23. That professional groups; children, parents, and the public at large, are generally not sufficiently aware of the African Charter and the African Commission.   IV – Matters for Follow-Up from the Report   24. The African Commission welcomes the undertaking made by the Delegation of South Africa to furnish it with additional information and updated statistics on issues the Commission sought further clarification. These include among others the following issues – Family matters, HIV/AIDS, Sexual offences, Child Justice and others:   Family Matters   a. The recognition of rules of Islamic and customary Law relating to marriage and related matters published on 30 May 2000;   b. The Harmonisation of common law and indigenous law tabled in Parliament on 29 May 2000, in particular the status of the Application of Customary Law Bill; and   c. Confidentiality enquiry into maternal deaths.   HIV/AIDS   25. Aspects of the law and policy relating to HIV/AIDS and the HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan; in particular the status of the Interim reports on pre-employment HIV-testing and discrimination in schools and the status of the Compulsory HIV-Testing of Sexual Offenders Bill.   Violence and Sexual offences   26. Matters related to Sexual offences such as bail for sexual offenders, making it easier for victims of sexual offences to testify in court, and the sentencing of persons convicted of sexual offences, etc.   Juvenile Justice   a. The status of the Review of the Child Care Act, 1983 (Act 74 of 1983);   b. The Children’s Broadcasting Forum; and   c. The South African Law Commission Report on Juvenile Justice.   Others   a. The status of the Public Interest and Class Actions Bill;   b. The status of the Immigration Bill, 2001; and   c. The Patients’ Rights Charter. V – Recommendations   The African Commission recommends that the Government of South Africa should:   27. The Commission notes the difficulties in ensuring the effective enjoyment of the rights in the Charter mentioned by the State Party and to this end urges civil society organizations and the international community to work closely with the State Party to ensure the effective implementation of the National Plan of Action on Human Rights;   28. Ensure that the provisions of the African Charter are widely known and understood by adults and children alike, in both rural and urban areas. In this regard, it encourages the State Party to intensify efforts for the effective implementation of the African Charter and make it available in local languages;   29. Consider lifting the reservation made on Article 6 (d) of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa;   30. Take appropriate administrative measures to ensure the speedy consideration of the applications for asylum seekers;   31. Undertake studies with a view to designing and implementing appropriate policies and measures, including care and rehabilitation, to prevent and combat the sexual exploitation of children;   32. Take all appropriate measures to ensure that the rights of children belonging to minority groups, including the Khoi-Khoi and San, are guaranteed, particularly those rights concerning culture, religion, language and access to information;   33. Take the necessary measures to fully implement the recommendations of the African Commission’s Special Rapporteur on Prisons and Conditions of Detention in Africa; 34. Intensify efforts to interact more with members of civil society organizations;   35. Make the declaration under Article 34 (6) of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Establishment of An African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights;   36. Take the necessary steps to ensure that the anti-terrorism legislation is in conformity with human rights standards and practices set forth by relevant human rights instruments ratified by the State, including the African Charter;   37. Take appropriate steps to present its next Periodic Report in conformity with Article 62 of the African Charter;   38. Inform the African Commission, in its next Periodic Report, of the steps it has taken to address the areas of concern, as well as how it has implemented the recommendations in this Concluding Observations.   Adopted at the 38th Ordinary Session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights held from 21 November to 5 December 2005 in Banjul, The Gambia.

زيمبابوي: التقرير الدوري الاول،1986-1991

قدمت: تشرين الأول 21 , 1992

الملاحظات الختامية: Available

غامبيا: التقرير الأولي، 1986-1992

قدمت: تشرين الأول 21 , 1992

الملاحظات الختامية: Available